c. 19th century
Europe and North America — Influence of Gothic architecture, French and Italian Renaissance, English Tudor, Industrial Revolution creates Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Industrial, Beaux-Arts, Arts and Crafts

Before explorers landed on the shores of the Americas, natives had developed communities and empires for centuries. Building methods were based on the climate, resources and ways of living.

Numerous inhabitants included many native tribes across the US, the Aztec Empire of the central basin surrounding Lake Texcoco, the Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula, and the Incan Empire of South America. While ultimate fear and disease exposure resulted in many of these cultures being extinguished or diminished or absorbed by the early Europeans, relics and methods continue to be preserved.

Victorian Gothic Revival, England

Indigenous people of Central and South America designed Pre-Columbian cities and civilizations, permanent settlements reflecting their beliefs, lifestyles, and locales.

Queen Anne Victorian, United States

The ubiquitous teepee is just one among several building methods used by Native Americans, which assimilated with nature using wood, reeds, thatch, and animal hides.

Industrial, France

In the 19th century, cast and wrought iron, mechanization, and mass production lead to new innovations in building production.

Beaux-Arts, France

Classic revival of Renaissance ideals characterized by order, formal symmetry, and elaborate, grandiosity ornamentation, such as with the Opèra Garnier in Paris, France.