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  4. Africa


The terrain is vast and diverse—from the Sahara to the savannas and jungles. African cultures are even more diverse than their land, where multiple cultures live within each country. Evidence of early human presence extending hundreds of millennia is the oldest in the world.

The Strait of Gibraltar separates Africa from Europe at the west entrance of the Mediterranean Sea by only 13 km (8 m). On the east end of this sea, Africa connects to Asia at Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula on the north end of the Red Sea. Africa’s eastern shore sits along the Indian Ocean, which meets the Atlantic Ocean on the continent’s southern tip.

Nations of Africa

North Africa

Southern Mediterranean and desert:
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Western Sahara (disputed), Canary Islands (Spain), Madeira Islands (Portugal)


Desert and savanna:
Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan

West Africa

Tropical and islands:
Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cape Verde (Atlantic), São Tomé & Principe Islands

Central Africa

Jungles and plains:
Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe islands

East Africa

Tropical, savanna, islands:
Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius (Indian Ocean), Seychelles (Indian Ocean), Mayotte (France), Reunion (France)

Southern Africa

South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia