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THE NEW WORLD SOUTH

Indigenous tribes and civilizations, like the Incas (in the Andes and west coast of Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile) and Mapuche (in southern Chile and Argentina), cared for and worked the land before European colonization. In the north, bands of Arawak and Carib natives inhabited the Guianas, the area along the northern seas around the Orinoco, Rio Negro, and Amazon Rivers (from Venezuela to Brazil).

The isthmus of Central America connects North America to South America, a continent between the Caribbean Sea to the north, the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Southern Ocean to the south, and the South Pacific Ocean to the west. Several islands are considered part of South America including the Falkland, South Georgia, and South Sandwich Islands (British territories), the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador, and ABC (Dutch) Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and islands of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea.

Nations of South America

Brazil

French Guiana (Guyane, France)

oversees department of France in “the Guianas” region

Suriname

former colony: Dutch Guiana

Guyana

former colony: British Guiana

Venezuela

Ecuador

includes the Galapagos Islands, 900 km (560 m) west

Peru

Chile

Bolivia

Argentina

Uruguay

Colombia

Paraguay